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Very nice work! Hardpan soil is soil that is underlaid by a rock-hard layer of material close enough to the surface to limit the depth plants can extend their roots and prevent internal drainage of the soil. The soil above the hardpan varies in depth from a few inches to two or three feet. Does this research illustrate how the Phytotoxicity of fungicide-coated sugar beet seed depends on growth conditions?


The published version of the open-access article in GM Crops & Food can be accessed at

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